Saturday, April 30, 2016

Thayne Elementary Weather Station and an Aid to Spring Planting.

Thayne Elementary Weather Station


A Davis Weather Station was installed  at Thayne Elementary School in September 2010 and has been transmitting data since 3pm  September 22, 2010.   On August 15, 2011 the sensors for both soil temperature and moisture were added to the station.

Following is a graph for the most recent year of daily maximum and minimum temperatures from the weather station.
Max and Min Temps Thayne Elementary  May 1 2015 to April 30 2016


It is interesting to look at the data which has been collected with the soil moisture and temperature sensors.

The first temperature sensor is located just below the surface on the school  grounds with the  2nd sensor buried at a depth of one foot and the third at 2 feet.

When looking at the sensor located just below the surface, it is surprising to see the large range of temperatures on particularly sunny days.  Following is an example of data for the soil temperatures

Near surface Thayne Elementary  temperature


However the 1 foot and 2 foot sensors tell a much different story with both dropping to freezing early in January and remaining there until the last week in March.

Thayne Soil Temperature at a depth of one foot


Thayne Soil Temperature at a depth of two feet.
The sensors currently are available from Spring until Fall.  Below is the graph of the 3 levels of temperatures for most of April 2016. The orange is just below the surface while Blue is one foot and green two feet below the surface.

Three levels of soil temperatures from April 13-30 2016

Moisture at one(green) and two(red)  foot levels
The moisture sensor thus far indicates fairly high soil moisture content.

The current reading of 9-12 centibars is a very moist soil.  It will be interesting to see how this sensor responds during summer  It can be observed any time on line at

For additional information (as to what this measurement suggests) the following  is helpful:

General rule of thumb for interpretation: 

Soil moisture is nearing a critically dry level when soil tension (indicated by the centibar meter reading) reaches a level that corresponds to more than 50 percent depletion of the plant available water at a specific soil depth.  The critical soil  tension level that corresponds with 50 percent depletion levels will vary depending upon soil type because of different soil porosity characteristics..   For example, a soil  tension reading of 35 centibars may indicate that a very sandy soil will approach 50 percent depletion of plant available soil moisture but for a loam/silt loam soil 50 percent depletion may  not be approached until tension readings approach 110 to 130 centibars.


Following is a guideline as to when to plant vegetables for optimal germination.  Using the temperature data from the Thayne Weather Station should aid that decision.



Friday, April 29, 2016

Video of Afternoon Convection Salt River Range- April 29 2016

This video was from the Web Cam about 2 miles south of Bedford looking north toward Star Valley Ranch. The video was taken from around 1pm April 29 until 7pm.



video


This following video was from near the same location and about the same time except looking east toward Turnerville.
video

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

PRELIMINARY SNOWFALL REPORTS FROM MONDAY AFTERNOON THROUGH THIS AFTERNOON


PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE RIVERTON WY
0614 PM MDT TUE APR 26 2016


...PRELIMINARY SNOWFALL REPORTS FROM MONDAY AFTERNOON THROUGH THIS
AFTERNOON...

LOCATION                             SNOWFALL
LINCOLN COUNTY...
 SALT RIVER SUMMIT SNOTEL...          3 INCHES.
 COMMISSARY RIDGE...                  3 INCHES.
 SPRING CREEK DIVIDE SNOTEL...        2 INCHES.
 INDIAN CREEK SNOTEL...               1 INCH.
 BLIND BULL SUMMIT...               0.1 INCHES.
BIG HORN COUNTY... SHELL CREEK SNOTEL... 6 INCHES. BONE SPRINGS DIVIDE SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. FREMONT COUNTY... TOWNSEND CREEK SNOTEL... 21 INCHES. HOBBS PARK SNOTEL... 18 INCHES. SOUTH PASS SNOTEL... 17 INCHES. DEER PARK SNOTEL... 16 INCHES. ST. LAWRENCE ALT SNOTEL... 14 INCHES. 9.5 SW LANDER... 14 INCHES. JEFFREY CITY... 8 INCHES. ATLANTIC CITY... 8 INCHES. 26 SSE RIVERTON... 8 INCHES. COLD SPRINGS SNOTEL... 7 INCHES. 6 SW LANDER... 4.6 INCHES. BROOKS LAKE... 4 INCHES. LITTLE WARM SNOTEL... 3 INCHES. LANDER AIRPORT... 2.3 INCHES. 1 SE LANDER... 2 INCHES. RIVERTON AIRPORT... 1.1 INCHES. LANDER... 1 INCH. DUBOIS... 1 INCH. BURROUGHS CREEK SNOTEL... 1 INCH. HOT SPRINGS COUNTY... OWL CREEK SNOTEL... 1 INCH. JOHNSON COUNTY... BEAR TRAP MEADOW SNOTEL... 5 INCHES. HANSEN SAWMILL SNOTEL... 3 INCHES. LITTLE GOOSE SNOTEL... 3 INCHES. SOLDIER PARK SNOTEL... 3 INCHES. CLOUD PEAK RESERVOIR SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. NATRONA COUNTY... CASPER MOUNTAIN... 12-17 INCHES. CASPER MOUNTAIN SNOTEL... 13 INCHES. RENO HILL SNOTEL... 13 INCHES. 1 SW CASPER... 11 INCHES. BESSEMER BEND... 10 INCHES. CASPER AIRPORT... 9.1 INCHES. POWDER RIVER... 7 INCHES. 2 S CASPER... 5 INCHES. 1 S CASPER... 5 INCHES. CASPER... 2.2-4.5 INCHES. 2 E EVANSVILLE... 4 INCHES. GRAVE SPRING SNOTEL... 4 INCHES. MILLS... 3 INCHES. MIDWEST... 2.5 INCHES. PARK COUNTY... TIMBER CREEK SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. BLACKWATER SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. MARQUETTE SNOTEL... 1 INCH. KIRWIN SNOTEL... 1 INCH. BEARTOOTH LAKE SNOTEL... 1 INCH. SUBLETTE COUNTY... LARSEN CREEK SNOTEL... 4 INCHES. LOOMIS PARK SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. POCKET CREEK SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. BIG SANDY OPENING SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. GUNSITE PASS SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. SNIDER BASIN SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. ELKHART PARK G.S. SNOTEL... 1 INCH. SWEETWATER COUNTY... 7 SE ROCK SPRINGS... 14 INCHES. ROCK SPRINGS... 4-7.5 INCHES. FARSON... 6 INCHES. GREEN RIVER... 3-6 INCHES. 4 NNW ROCK SPRINGS... 4.1 INCHES. 5 N FARSON... 4 INCHES. TETON COUNTY... TOGWOTEE MOUNTAIN LODGE... 4 INCHES. TOGWOTEE PASS SNOTEL... 3 INCHES. GROS VENTRE SUMMIT SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. GRAND TARGHEE - CHIEF JOSEPH... 2 INCHES. GRAND TARGHEE SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. GRASSY LAKE SNOTEL... 1 INCH. JACKSON HOLE - RENDEZVOUS BOWL... 1 INCH. JACKSON HOLE - RAYMER... 0.1 INCHES. WASHAKIE COUNTY... MIDDLE POWDER SNOTEL... 5 INCHES. POWDER RIVER PASS SNOTEL... 3 INCHES. 27 S TEN SLEEP... 0.2 INCHES. YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK... LEWIS LAKE DIVIDE SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. CANYON SNOTEL... 1 INCH.

Severe Thunderstorms Including Possible Large Tornadoes Expected Today in the Central Plains

NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
   0746 AM CDT TUE APR 26 2016

   VALID 261300Z - 271200Z

   ...THERE IS A MDT RISK OF SVR TSTMS PORTIONS SRN NEB...CENTRAL/ERN
   KS...N-CENTRAL THROUGH S-CENTRAL OK...

   ...THERE IS AN ENH RISK OF SVR TSTMS ELSEWHERE FROM SRN NEB TO
   CENTRAL TX...WITH LOBE FROM ERN KS TO ERN MO...

   ...THERE IS A SLGT RISK OF SVR TSTMS SURROUNDING ENH AREA AND
   EXTENDING EWD TO LOWER OH VALLEY AND SSWWD TO PORTIONS S-CENTRAL/SW
   TX...

   ...THERE IS A SLGT RISK OF SVR TSTMS PORTIONS ERN WV TO JERSEY
   SHORE...

   ...THERE IS A MRGL RISK OF SVR TSTMS BETWEEN AND IMMEDIATELY
   SURROUNDING SLGT-RISK AREAS...

   ...SUMMARY...
   A SUBSTANTIAL SEVERE-WEATHER EVENT IS EXPECTED TODAY AND TONIGHT
   OVER PARTS OF THE CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN PLAINS...WITH
   TORNADOES...DESTRUCTIVE HAIL AND DAMAGING WIND ALL POSSIBLE. 
   DAMAGING WIND ALSO IS EXPECTED FROM A COMPLEX OF THUNDERSTORMS
   MOVING ACROSS THE LOWER MISSOURI VALLEY AND MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI
   VALLEY REGION THIS MORNING INTO EARLY AFTERNOON.











Sunday, April 24, 2016

PRELIMINARY SNOWFALL...24 HOUR PRECIPITATION REPORTS


PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE RIVERTON WY
0534 PM MDT SUN APR 24 2016


......AND 24
HOUR PEAK WIND GUSTS...ALL ENDING AT 6 PM TODAY...

THE FIRST IN A SERIES OF DISTURBANCES BROUGHT SNOW...STRONG
WINDS...AND ABUNDANT MOISTURE TO THE REGION SATURDAY EVENING THROUGH
SUNDAY. THE SNOW...PRECIPITATION...AND WIND REPORTS FROM THIS EVENT
CAN ALL BE FOUND BELOW.

LOCATION                             SNOWFALL
LINCOLN COUNTY...
 WILLOW CREEK SNOTEL...               6 INCHES.
 COTTONWOOD CREEK SNOTEL...           4 INCHES.
 BLIND BULL SUMMIT...                 4 INCHES.
 COMMISSARY RIDGE...                  1 INCH.
BIG HORN COUNTY... BONE SPRINGS DIVIDE SNOTEL... 7 INCHES. SHELL CREEK SNOTEL... 3 INCHES. 26 E LOVELL... 2 INCHES. BALD MOUNTAIN SNOTEL... 1 INCH. FREMONT COUNTY... 26 SSE RIVERTON... 6 INCHES. ATLANTIC CITY... 1.5 INCHES. CASTLE CREEK SNOTEL... 1 INCH. JEFFREY CITY... 1 INCH. HOBBS PARK SNOTEL... 1 INCH. BROOKS LAKE... 0.1 INCHES. HOT SPRINGS COUNTY... OWL CREEK SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. JOHNSON COUNTY... CLOUD PEAK RESERVOIR SNOTEL... 14 INCHES. LITTLE GOOSE SNOTEL... 12 INCHES. NATRONA COUNTY... CASPER MOUNTAIN... 12 INCHES. CASPER MOUNTAIN SNOTEL... 11 INCHES. GRAVE SPRING SNOTEL... 10 INCHES. RENO HILL SNOTEL... 1 INCH. CASPER AIRPORT... 0.5 INCHES. PARK COUNTY... KIRWIN SNOTEL... 6 INCHES. EVENING STAR SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. BEARTOOTH LAKE SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. SUBLETTE COUNTY... TRIPLE PEAK SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. TETON COUNTY... JACKSON HOLE - RENDEZVOUS BOWL... 3 INCHES. GRAND TARGHEE - CHIEF JOSEPH... 2 INCHES. TOGWOTEE PASS SNOTEL... 2 INCHES. TOGWOTEE MOUNTAIN LODGE... 1 INCH. JACKSON HOLE - RAYMER... 1 INCH. JACKSON HOLE - MID MOUNTAIN... 0.1 INCHES. YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK... SYLVAN LAKE SNOTEL... 1 INCH. ...RAINFALL REPORTS PAST 24 HOURS ENDING AT 6 PM TODAY... LOCATION AMOUNT TIME/DATE PROVIDER ...BIG HORN COUNTY... 11 ESE LOVELL 0.38 IN 0515 PM 04/24 HADS 5 ENE HYATTVILLE 0.27 IN 0552 PM 04/24 RAWS GREYBULL AIRPORT 0.21 IN 0600 PM 04/24 ASOS ...FREMONT COUNTY... 2 S RIVERTON 0.94 IN 0515 PM 04/24 HADS BOYSEN RESERVOIR 0.91 IN 0530 PM 04/24 HADS SHOSHONI 0.81 IN 0500 PM 04/24 COOP RIVERTON AIRPORT 0.78 IN 0600 PM 04/24 ASOS MIDDLE FORK POPO AGIE RIVER 0.54 IN 0515 PM 04/24 HADS 3 NNW HUDSON 0.51 IN 0546 PM 04/24 RAWS LANDER AIRPORT 0.45 IN 0600 PM 04/24 ASOS 7 SW MUDDY GAP 0.43 IN 0550 PM 04/24 RAWS N. FORK LITTLE WIND RIVER 0.39 IN 0545 PM 04/24 HADS N FORK POPO AGIE RIVER 0.38 IN 0600 PM 04/24 HADS 9 SW LANDER 0.30 IN 0500 PM 04/24 HADS ...HOT SPRINGS COUNTY... S. FORK OWL CREEK BELOW ANCH 0.33 IN 0530 PM 04/24 HADS 10 S MEETEETSE 0.28 IN 0542 PM 04/24 RAWS ...JOHNSON COUNTY... 17 E KAYCEE 2.17 IN 0515 PM 04/24 HADS LINCH 2.12 IN 0456 PM 04/24 CWOP 8 S STORY 1.88 IN 0515 PM 04/24 HADS 10 SW KAYCEE 1.84 IN 0500 PM 04/24 HADS KAYCEE 1.59 IN 0459 PM 04/24 CWOP 7 NW MAYOWORTH 1.56 IN 0500 PM 04/24 HADS 7 WSW BUFFALO 1.51 IN 0600 PM 04/24 HADS BUFFALO AIRPORT 1.47 IN 0600 PM 04/24 ASOS 3 SSE BARNUM 1.26 IN 0600 PM 04/24 HADS 7 SW BARNUM 0.97 IN 0546 PM 04/24 RAWS 14 W BUFFALO 0.67 IN 0515 PM 04/24 HADS 18 NW BUFFALO 0.39 IN 0547 PM 04/24 RAWS ...NATRONA COUNTY... CASPER AIRPORT 1.57 IN 0600 PM 04/24 ASOS CASPER - N PLATTE RIVER 0.88 IN 0530 PM 04/24 HADS 16 S HILAND 0.48 IN 0510 PM 04/24 RAWS PATHFINDER RESERVOIR 0.45 IN 0530 PM 04/24 HADS INDEPENDENCE ROCK 0.20 IN 0545 PM 04/24 HADS ...SUBLETTE COUNTY... BONDURANT 0.37 IN 0600 PM 04/24 HADS PINE CREEK ABOVE FREMONT LAK 0.31 IN 0545 PM 04/24 HADS ...TETON COUNTY... ALTA 0.38 IN 0545 PM 04/24 HADS 17 N ALTA 0.33 IN 0603 PM 04/24 RAWS ...WASHAKIE COUNTY... 15 SSW BIG TRAILS 2.19 IN 0540 PM 04/24 RAWS 16 SE BIG TRAILS 1.03 IN 0600 PM 04/24 HADS WORLAND AIRPORT 0.68 IN 0600 PM 04/24 ASOS 10 SSE WORLAND 0.55 IN 0517 PM 04/24 RAWS 12 ENE TEN SLEEP 0.30 IN 0514 PM 04/24 RAWS OBSERVATIONS ARE COLLECTED FROM A VARIETY OF SOURCES WITH VARYING EQUIPMENT AND EXPOSURE. NOT ALL DATA LISTED ARE CONSIDERED OFFICIAL. ...WIND REPORTS PAST 24 HOURS ENDING AROUND 6 PM TODAY... LOCATION SPEED TIME/DATE ELEVATION ...BIG HORN COUNTY... GREYBULL AIRPORT 52 MPH 0841 AM 04/24 3935 FT 30 E GREYBULL 43 MPH 0858 AM 04/24 8898 FT COWLEY AIRPORT 43 MPH 0555 AM 04/24 4090 FT ...FREMONT COUNTY... 7 SW MUDDY GAP 47 MPH 0750 AM 04/24 7380 FT DUBOIS AIRPORT 40 MPH 1215 PM 04/24 7297 FT ...HOT SPRINGS COUNTY... BOYSEN PEAK 69 MPH 0455 AM 04/24 7300 FT ...JOHNSON COUNTY... BUFFALO AIRPORT 66 MPH 1028 AM 04/24 4970 FT 18 NW BUFFALO 47 MPH 0347 AM 04/24 8604 FT 7 SW BARNUM 45 MPH 1246 PM 04/24 6440 FT LINCH 43 MPH 0938 PM 04/23 4934 FT ...NATRONA COUNTY... 16 S HILAND 57 MPH 0710 PM 04/23 6380 FT CASPER AIRPORT 45 MPH 0426 PM 04/23 5320 FT ...PARK COUNTY... POWELL AIRPORT 44 MPH 1055 AM 04/24 5050 FT ...SWEETWATER COUNTY... ROCK SPRINGS AIRPORT 46 MPH 1051 AM 04/24 6760 FT 15 SE ROCK SPRINGS 43 MPH 0744 AM 04/24 7550 FT ...WASHAKIE COUNTY... WILD HORSE 41 MPH 0848 AM 04/24 8150 FT WORLAND AIRPORT 41 MPH 1047 AM 04/24 4245 FT OBSERVATIONS ARE COLLECTED FROM A VARIETY OF SOURCES WITH VARYING EQUIPMENT AND EXPOSURE. NOT ALL DATA LISTED ARE CONSIDERED OFFICIAL.

Friday, April 22, 2016

Wyoming Spring 2016 Snowmelt Flood Potential Outlook---updated April 19th

Quick Synopsis:

Mountain snowpack and associated snow water equivalents (SWEs) across central to southern Wyoming continued to be average to above average by the middle of April; while SWEs across northern Wyoming basins were generally below average.  SWEs at the peak snowmelt runoff elevations (8,500’ – 10.000’) were the highest across the Laramie Basin at 120 to 125 percent of median.   The Tongue and Powder River Drainages had SWEs at 75 to 80 percent of median at the peak snowmelt runoff elevations.
This outlook is based on various diverse hydrological factors such as snow water equivalents (SWEs) in the mountain snowpack, basin morphology (i.e. how basins respond to snowmelt runoff),  antecedent soil moisture, amount of bark beetle kill, low elevation snow depths, and likely temperature and precipitation trends during the late spring through early summer.   

HIGHLIGHTS:

Moderate to High potential for flooding associated with snowmelt is expected across lower portions of the Laramie River Basin…

Moderate potential for snowmelt flooding is expected across lower sections of the Upper North Platte River and Little/Big Wind River Drainages…

…All other of headwater basins across Wyoming can expect a generallyLow potential for flooding due to springtime snowmelt...

*******************************************************************************************************************************************
Other hydrological information for Wyoming can be found at the NOAA hydrology website:

Monthly Wyoming Hydrologic Summary and Graphics:
(updated monthly around the 15th of every month)

Wyoming Drought Information Page:
(updated at least once a month)

Wyoming Graphical Water Supply Outlook:
(updated by the 10th of every month—January-June)

Wyoming Average Precipitation by Basin:
 (updated monthly)

Wyoming Spring Snowmelt Runoff Flood Potential Graphic:
(updated around the 20th of the month---February-May)

Current and Forecast Wyoming Streamflows and/or River Stages:

*******************************************************************************************************************************************

The current Wyoming Spring 2016 Snowmelt Runoff Flood Potential Outlook graphic:


Thursday, April 21, 2016

Where Are the Snowiest Regions on Earth?

Interesting blog posted by Jim Steenburgh of the U of U on where besides Star Valley it can snow a lot.


Where Are the Snowiest Regions on Earth?

A remarkable global snow climatology has recently been developed by scientists from the Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) at the University of Wisconsin–Madison (see Kulie et al. 2016; access to full article may be paywalled unless you or your institution are subscribers to the American Meteorological Society Journals).  

Producing such a climatology is a major challenge.  Reliable snow observations are fairly limited over land, especially in the high latitudes, and nearly non existent over the oceans.  Thus, Kulie et al. (2016) take advantage of the cloud profiling radar on NASA's CloudSat satellite to develop their climatology.  The CloudSat profiling radar has a wavelength of only 3.2 mm, much smaller than the 3 to 10 cm wavelength commonly used for traditional weather radars.  This makes the radar more sensitive to smaller cloud droplets and ice crystals.  

The Kulie et al. climatology incorporates CloudSat observations from June 2006 through December 2010.  Because of their global focus, these observations are binned into 1 degree latitude–longitude boxes (about 100 by 100 km at midlatitudes).  Thus, the climatology will not pick up on smaller scale snowfall microclimates such as those found in North America.  However, the results are still quite fascinating.

The figures below show the ratio of CloudSat observations with snow (an approximate measure for snowfall frequency) and the estimated liquid equivalent of snowfall.  Values are highest in the mid and high latitudes, especially along the Southern Hemisphere storm track and in North Atlantic and Barents Sea.  So much snow falling on water.  What a waste!
Top: Ratio (%) of CloudSat observations with snow. Bottom: Mean annual liquid equivalent of snowfall (mm/year).  Both in 1x1 degree grid boxes.  Source: Kulie et al. (2016).
Even at this very coarse resolution, the coastal mountains of northwest North America stand out, as do the southern Andes.  If you blow the image up, you can also find high values over high mountain Asia, especially in the western Himalayas and Karakoram, which experience a greater fraction of precipitation produced by disturbances in the midlatitudes westerlies.  Southeastern Greenland also stands out as a snowfall hotspot.  

Unfortunately, this grid spacing does not allow us to examine the small-scale characteristics of snowfall in many areas and largely smooths out the effects of narrow topographic features such as those found in the western U.S.  Looking forward to seeing what the can strain out on regional scales.

Monday, April 11, 2016

Web Cameras on StarValleyWeather.com and how to display their options.

The initial post on this blog was a description of the Weather Camera link on the site.  This was posted on 10/11/11.  John has since improved the site archiving capability and thus a re-posting  of the original description with the added info about the improvements follows.  The additional discussion is underlined at the end.

The Weather Camera is a link to the site www.halescamvideo.com that was developed by John Hales as a Christmas Gift to me(his father) in 2008.  While John provides any technical needs, I am the site manager and maintain quality control of the Cams on the site.

At any given time there could be as many as 140 web cams displayed.  The criteria used to determine the display of a camera are: 

1. Quality of the image.(StarDot Cameras much preferred).

2. Frequency of updates. (ideally every minute) 

3. Proximity to Star Valley WY

4. View of the sky.

5. Reliability

Here are the cams available  at this time.  Cams will be added or removed dependent on their availability.

Cams available in Star Valley area
Cams available in WY area

Cams available in the CONUS


Current Features

Left click on the image will provide a  larger current image

The cursor at the top of each cam will open up the control menu for that particular cam. 


Left click on the minutes option(30 60 120 180 300) will build a loop of that length in time.

Left click on the info (i) button and it will bring up a google map centered on the webcam location.  Additionally it will display the latest weather observation and identifying the location of the observation.

There is also a radar option which when turned on will display the current composite reflectivity product from the NWS  The satellite option will display the current infrared imagery.

Clicking on the + will open up a looping option.  At least 3 days are available in the archive for all cams.  Selecting the date/time and looping length in minutes will rebuild a loop.

There are two options when building a loop.  The Load Loop option will rebuild a requested  time period  and display it.  A much more powerful option is the Create Video.  This will build the requested time period and then display the Download mp4 Video which will then produce a url  that can be copied/sent or saved as a video file.

While all cams have at least the most recent 3 days archived, additional days can be added to a particular cam upon request.